Every IoT device should operate over an encrypted channel. But how exactly does that security work as your fleet rapidly grows? Our recommendation is to use certificate authentication to deliver strong encryption while solving common fleet management problems. Today we’re showing how to provision and store IoT device certificates.

Certificate Authentication based on ECDSA

Golioth uses ECDSA encryption. You generate a root certificate and private key, use that key to sign all of your device certificates, then upload your public root certificate to Golioth. The last piece of the puzzled is placing a unique device certificate onto each device.

One method of doing so is to store the cert on a filesystem in non-volatile storage (NVS) that is separate from the firmware itself. Golioth has sample code to show you how, and that’s the subject of today’s video.

Root and Device Certificates

Generating the certificates is beyond the scope of this post, but the process is well-documented in the certificate authentication section of the Golioth docs. As a result of this process you will upload the generated public root certificate to Golioth. This lets Golioth securely connect to any device that uses certificates signed by your private root key.

Every device you put into the field needs to have a unique public/private key pair signed by your private root key. That device key and device certificate is what we store on the device file system.

Storing Device Certificates in a File System

Zephyr RTOS includes a filesystem which we have turned on in our certificate-provisioning sample code. Once the firmware is flashed to the device, use the Zephyr shell to create a directory in which the credentials are stored. This directory creation process can be further automated (through an mcumgr command or perhaps with some clever initialization in the firmware) but we chose to leave this as a manual step so that it’s obvious what is happening under the hood.

Credentials are transferred to the device over a USB connection using mcumgr because it facilitates writing to the filesystem over the serial connection. This is a separate process from updating the firmware, which means you can change the firmware without altering the device certificates. Likewise, you can update the certificates without overwriting the firmware.

Golioth Automatically Provisions Your Devices

We often discuss the security benefits of using certificates instead of pre-shared key authentication. But from a fleet-management standpoint there’s another huge benefit to doing so: automatic cloud provisioning for your devices.

Golioth Console showing IoT device summary

This device was automatically added using certificate authentication

In a nutshell, you don’t need to tell Golioth that you’ve created new devices. As long as they have unique certificate credentials that were signed by your root key, Golioth will authenticate your device and automatically add it to your project.

We begin with an empty project in the video, and after adding the certificates to the device it automatically appears in the Golioth device list. The name of the device is specified in the certificate itself. You choose how you want to organize your device names when you create the certificates.

This may not feel profound with a test fleet of just one device. But as you scale, the ability to add hundreds or thousands of devices to your network becomes unmanageable. This is especially true if you are responsible for adding encryption keys and device names manually. Instead, upload your public root certificate to Golioth and we take care of the rest.

Test Out Provisioning and Storing IoT Credentials Now!

Your first 50 devices are free with Golioth’s Dev Tier. Take your test drive today and see how smooth and powerful the provisioning process can be!

Golioth is secure by default, offering a couple of different ways for your devices to establish a secure connection to the Golioth Servers. When trying out features in the lab, pre-shared keys (PSK) are fine. But when moving devices into production, there is no substitute for certificate-based authentication.

Today we are announcing the ability to use Certificates with the Golioth platform.

Certificates deliver numerous security benefits when compared to pre-shared keys. This is especially true when it comes to provisioning your IoT fleet. As devices roll off the assembly line, they can be granted individual device certificates signed using a trusted chain of root certificates and intermediate certificates. At that point, the devices are not yet registered on the Golioth server. When they first connect, the certificates are verified against the chain of trust and a record of the trust-verified device is created. This simplifies the registration of a large influx of new devices, as happens in a production environment.

Let’s walk through the process used to get to that point.

How to generate and use certificates with Golioth

Generating a self-signed root certificate

A root certificate is a cryptographic public/private key pair. The private key is used to sign all device certificates. The public key is uploaded to the Golioth server and used at the project level to verify each device certificate when establishing a secure connection.


# Generate an elliptic curve private key 
# Run `openssl ecparam -list_curves` to list all available algorithms
# Keep this key safe! Anyone who has it can sign authentic-looking device certificates
openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out "${SERVER_NAME}.key.pem"

# Create and self-sign a corresponding public key / certificate
openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key "${SERVER_NAME}.key.pem" -sha256 -subj "/C=BR/CN=Root ${SERVER_NAME}" -days 1024 -out "${SERVER_NAME}.crt.pem"

The code above generates two files. The golioth.key.pem is the private key which you must safeguard. All credentials created from this private root key will be fully trusted. Golioth will not have a copy of this key.

The golioth.crt.pem is the public key that is uploaded to Golioth. This serves as a way to verify device credentials as trusted. It cannot be used to sign new device certificates, only the private key has that power.

Upload the root certificate public key to Golioth

Certificate authentication

As of December 2022, the Golioth console includes a “Certificates” option on the left sidebar menu. The resulting window is used to upload the root certificate public key. This is all that you need to do to prepare the Golioth Cloud for your fleet. As long as each IoT device has its own certificate signed with your root certificate’s private key, it will be added to this project the first time it tries to connect to Golioth.

Generate device certificates


# Generate an elliptic curve private key
openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out "${CLIENT_NAME}.key.pem"

# Create a certificate signing request (CSR)
# (this is what you would normally give to your CA / PKI to sign)
openssl req -new -key "${CLIENT_NAME}.key.pem" -subj "/C=BR/O=${PROJECT_SLUG}/CN=${PRIMARY_HARDWARE_ID}" -out "${CLIENT_NAME}.csr.pem"

# Sign the certificate (CSR) using the previously generated self-signed root certificate
openssl x509 -req \
    -in "${CLIENT_NAME}.csr.pem" \
    -CA "${SERVER_NAME}.crt.pem" \
    -CAkey "${SERVER_NAME}.key.pem" \
    -CAcreateserial \
    -out "${CLIENT_NAME}.crt.pem" \
    -days 500 -sha256

# Convert device certificates to DER format
openssl x509 -in ${CLIENT_NAME}.crt.pem -outform DER -out ${CLIENT_NAME}.crt.pem.der
openssl ec -in ${CLIENT_NAME}.key.pem -outform DER -out ${CLIENT_NAME}.key.pem.der

The root certificate is the source of trust, and all device certificates are created using this private key. This is why it is crucial that you safeguard your root certificate(s). Device credentials are created using the private key and added to your fleet during production. If newly created devices are compromised, it will not affect any other device credentials already out in the field because they don’t hold the (root) private key, they were simply generated from it.

The code above uses the Golioth Project ID as the PROJECT_SLUG and the SERVER_NAME to connect to the correct project. The root certificate public key was uploaded to this project in the previous section. When creating device certificates, the PRIMARY_HARDWARE_ID is a unique identifier that you generate (e.g. MAC address, naming scheme, any string will work). You need one of these for each device in your fleet.

As with the root certificate, the device certificate creation process will generate a public/private key pair. Both are loaded onto the device and used when establishing a secure connection to the Golioth Servers.

Golioth uses ECDSA (a note for other encryption geeks like us)

When a device is ready to connect to Golioth, it will request and download a server-side (public) certificate. That too will be signed by a trusted authority. The device will need to verify that certificate to ensure it’s not attempting to connect to a bad actor, such as someone pretending to be Golioth by using a “man-in-the-middle” (MITM) attack.

At Golioth, we are embedded developers as well as Cloud experts, so we chose an encryption that is as friendly as possible to resource-constrained devices. That is why we have all the certificates in the chain use ECDSA keys. They are significantly smaller to transfer and less resource intensive for embedded processing.


We’ve previously written about the importance of using certificates for Internet of Things (IoT) authentication. Certificate validation scales well, especially when it comes to provisioning devices during manufacture. New credentials can be signed with a root certificate without needing to share them back to the cloud server. And since those devices will be sent out into the field there’s an additional security benefit: compromised devices don’t expose symmetrical keys as is the case with PSK-based encryption.

In most cases, production deployments should consider certificate-based authentication for their IoT fleet. The certificate feature is built into Golioth and ready to use today.

We’d love to hear about how you are securing your company’s IoT fleet. Share your questions and tips on the Golioth Forum and don’t hesitate to reach out to our Developer Relations team if you’re interested in a guided tour of our certificate-based authentication!

How can security improve when manufacturing large volumes of devices? That’s the question I ended on in my last article about Golioth Pre-Shared Keys (PSK).

Securing a large population of devices (10k or more) in a way that’s scalable and meets your project’s budgets is not trivial, but it is solvable. It takes a combination of modern technologies, and even not so modern technologies.

Certificates have been around for decades. Today the most recognizable certificate-based security protocol is TLS, which started all the way back in the mid-90s as SSL. But certificates haven’t found their way to all IoT applications because of their complexity and infrastructure requirements.

Many connected devices work around the complexity by eschewing good security practices:

  • Completely ignoring security (authentication or encryption)
  • Relying on “security by obscurity” (proprietary solutions that are not secure, but would need to be intentionally exploited by an attacker)
  • Use product-wide passwords
  • Are produced in small enough quantities to not feel the pain (and cost) of handling per-device keys.

None of these are ideal at scale.

The Limits of Pre-Shared Key (PSK) Scaling

When using PSK, your device and your cloud need to pre-share a secret. That means you need to store and distribute a sensitive per-device key for every device (or a system to derive the key). For prototyping, this involves copying and pasting a key from the Cloud to your Device over serial or similar. There are challenges getting those keys to your devices on the production line, but the ultimate risk to your deployments are when those devices are out in the field

PSK symmetry

From a security perspective, the limitation of PSK is that it uses symmetric encryption. Both sides of the communication use the same key. That means that a potential attacker could extract the keys from the cloud (in bulk), and use them to impersonate authentic devices.

Instead, we could use an asymmetric key. With asymmetric encryption, there is no pre-shared secret, but rather a pair of keys: a public key, and a private key. In our case, the public key is shared between the cloud and the device. The private key is kept secret by the device, and can be used to decipher information encrypted with the public key. Only the holder of the private key can decipher information that is encrypted by the public key. That’s why it is called asymmetric. You cannot use the public key to decipher the information enciphered by it. The burden is again on the device maker to load the keys onto the constrained devices at the time of manufacture.

If we want to upgrade our experience even more, Certificates are more “usable” primitives that are based on asymmetric cryptography. But they offer even more trust.

Certificate signing

One extra added value of asymmetric cryptography (and public keys) is that the public keys are well suited for chains of signatures. In other words, they can be used to prove the authenticity of a chain of identity claims. A device claiming it has a specific serial number can prove its authenticity, and not just someone who copied the serial number and pretends to be the device.

How is that possible? The signatures can be independently verified by anyone out there using public keys. Even if you don’t have the public key for a specific device, you can decide you trust the manufacturer that produced the device. By extension, you trust that devices that can prove they were produced by that manufacturer.

But that also means that as an author (or producer) of a secure device, you have to choose wisely who you trust.

Chains of trust enable scaling of secure manufacturing

Let’s imagine a scenario where you design a super-secure device, powered by private / public keys in the form of certificates.

Next, you need to find someone to produce those devices, such as a contract manufacturer. Once the devices start to roll off the production line, they need to be loaded with the private-public key pairs. Someone needs to generate those pairs and help to get them on the device in a secure way.

From a simple perspective, you can use certificate chains to enable manufacturers to produce authentic devices on your behalf. When the devices first connect, they will be able to prove to the cloud that they were produced through a trust chain.

The advantage of that is that you no longer need to store all per-device keys or certificates. All you need to decide is what the trusted “root” certificates are for the devices that are authorized to interact with the cloud.

Downsides of certificates

If the security advantages of certificates are so clear, why don’t we just use them everywhere? If you come from the web world, you’ve likely never encountered PSK because certificates are everywhere. Your browser doesn’t ask for the password to access the SSL version of Google.com, they issue a certificate that can be traced back to a signing authority.

In the Internet of Things, not all use-cases have budgets left to make certificates commercially feasible.

Some of the major challenges you will need to consider:

  • You need to decide who you trust, and how much you trust them. If you can’t trust your manufacturing chain, it’s going to be very difficult (costly) to produce trustable devices
  • Secure storage of private keys for the root certificates can be costly, if you want to do it right. When compromised, private keys allow the attacker to produce certificates that are indistinguishable from authentic certificates
  • Setting up the end-to-end process of certificate provisioning can be costly, and the subsequent maintenance and rotation of certificates can carry a lot of cost, too, if not planned properly in advance

But mostly, when IoT projects are in the planning stage, security tends to be overlooked or be taken for granted. Teams scramble to get something in place just before starting a first large batch of devices; it’s often this time that companies discover the full extent of their security needs and the associated costs. At that point, budgets have already been spent and deadlines are tight, and using proper certificate authentication becomes commercially unfeasible.

Certificate authentication for Internet of Things

Certificates offer the ideal combination of security, usability, and scalability. The manufacturing chain is what ultimately defines how trustable your devices actually are, so you will need to choose who you trust wisely. The overhead of building and maintaining certificate chains and large volumes of certificates is not free, but is cheaper than the alternatives, especially if you account for risk.

At Golioth, we only allow secure device connections, at a bare minimum PSK. Our users have a choice in the degree of security that they need for their application, and that is commercially feasible for their use-case. If certificates are your choice, we have the supporting end-to-end tooling and infrastructure.

Ultimately, each company needs to consider the security sensitivity of their IoT application. Your challenge will be balancing the risks you are willing to take and the budget your application has for security overhead. Hardest of all is understanding where you should draw the line. If you’d like to talk to someone about your security needs at your company, please reach out to our DevRel team for a personalized conversation.

On the scale of “none at all” to “X.509 certificates“, there is a wide range of security implementations possible. In this article, we discuss how a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) scheme is “secure enough” to get your prototype off the ground and why your first prototype on Golioth will be “secure by default”.

This article isn’t about production-level security

Getting devices connected to the internet is non-trivial. Security protocols and methods exist to keep unwanted devices off of networks, and put processes in place that require devices to verify that they are allowed onto a network. In bootstrapping a device to securely connect to the internet, many people choose plaintext connections instead of taking the time and headache of utilizing good security practices.

At the other end of the spectrum, we have strict security practices and the engineers charged with maintaining networks. Devices that seek to join those networks must implement the layers of encryption required to certify that a device is on a network. Security professionals stake their careers on solid methods and highly complex processes.

We are taking a middle ground.

Enter: the password

First, let’s define what a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) system looks like. With PSK, your device and your backend will share the same secret. If you ever used passwords, you are likely familiar with the concept. You can think of PSK as passwords not for human users, but for devices. Imagine you are a user of a service, to which you log in with a password and a username. When you signed up for your account, you told the service (pre-shared) the username and password you want to use for future log-ins. PSK is essentially the same if you substitute a user for a device. Each device is assigned (pre-shared) a key (“password”) and a PSK-ID (“username”) by the backend, which it then can use to authenticate itself to the backend.

What about the security of PSK usage at scale? To draw a security analogy, let’s start with considering how WiFi PSK works, and how much you trust it. In a PSK WiFi network, you configure a “password” on the WiFi access point, and then give the same password to anyone who you want to let connect to that network. Most home WiFi networks use PSK authentication, even though you might not call it PSK, but a “WiFi password”. Many corporate visitor networks work the same. TLS PSK in IoT is more robust. For authorization purposes, giving the same password (“PSK key”) wouldn’t help much. It would merely tell the device is authorized to use the service, but it would not prove anything about its identity. That’s why when using TLS PSK in IoT, you shouldn’t give the same password to multiple devices. Every device should have its own “password” (and “username” – a PSK identity).

By assigning a unique PSK to each device, compromising the password of one device will not compromise other devices. In this aspect, TLS PSK is more secure than your average WiFi connection. In many smart home deployments, the same WiFi password is shared by all devices, mostly because of its convenience. However, that also means that if any of those devices get compromised, your WiFi network is no longer secure. Anyone with that WiFi password can connect new devices to it.

PSK is good enough for prototypes

PSK has its use case, and it’s convenience motivated. You likely don’t want to be bothered with procuring a Hardware Security Module (HSM) and setting up a secure process to generate and distribute certificates. You likely need to get some level of security as quickly as possible. That’s the “good enough”. Certificates are going to give you great security, but are going to make everything way more complex. This is where PSK is a great candidate.

Adding a layer: PSK key rotation

To make it more difficult for a potential attacker to compromise your device, it is worth changing (rotating) your device’s keys once in a while. The process doesn’t have to be complicated, but it could be if you don’t design for it.

Start by building your device with two sets of keys. One main key (that is actively being used), and one backup key (only used under special conditions). That way, if you need to update your key, you can keep your existing main key in place and only update the backup key. After the update, if you have experienced a successful authentication for that device, all you need to do is swap the roles of the keys, and you’re good to go. On an unsuccessful start, just keep things as they are and try the key update process again.

When you head towards production

So if PSK is so great, why don’t we just drop certificates and use PSK instead? From the single-device perspective, it might seem like a good idea. But once you start thinking about hundreds, thousands, or millions of devices, things become more complicated and more expensive.

If you are preparing to manufacture millions of devices securely, you are likely considering many aspects of not only technical / hardware / software security, but also physical security of your operations. Who can build authentic devices for me? Who do I trust to build authentic devices?

With PSK, the naive approach could be just setting up a manufacturing station that generates random keys and upon producing a device with a specific key, it also registers the key “in the cloud”. This will make your production depend on internet availability, and availability of the servers that register the keys. Outage of any of these will bring your production to halt.

You might work around this problem by having a local database of keys on the manufacturing station, but that leaves you with a synchronization challenge, and you’d have to rely on a local storage of the manufacturing station to persist the information. Going down this path, it’s likely you’ll find more new problems than solutions.

Ultimately, PSK is not a great solution for manufacturing at scale. It might work well for small batches in your PoC, but make sure to consider how it will impact your product at scale.

“Secure by default” with Golioth

At Golioth, we want to make sure your devices can seamlessly go through all phases of an IoT project – from a concept, through a prototype, to production at scale. We want to set you and your project up for success from day one.

That’s why we decided to make TLS PSK authentication required for all devices connecting to Golioth. Using PSK during development requires very little overhead, and meets convenience requirements for fast iteration, fast onboarding, and simple debugging. Your prototype will have security that is based on battle-proven Internet standards and meets compliance and certification requirements of most IoT use-cases. You can assign multiple keys to any one device to try out PSK key rotation. Your team and end customers won’t need to worry about the prototype being safe. It will also pave the way for easy migration to more advanced security once you are ready to produce devices at scale.

Check out the video below to see PSK assignment in action and to hear more about PSK use at Golioth.